Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.
What we have are largely notes, written at various points in his career, for different purposes, edited and cobbled together by later followers. The style of the resulting collection is often rambling, repetitious, obscure, and disjointed.
There are many arcane, puzzling, and perhaps contradictory passages. Some familiarity with Greek terminology is required if one hopes to capture the nuances in his thought.
Classicists and scholars do argue, of course, about the precise Greek meaning of key words or phrases but many of these debates involve minor points of interpretation that cannot concern us here.
Many good translations of Aristotle are available. Parenthetical citations below include the approximate Bekker number the scholarly notation for referring to Aristotelian passages according to page, column, and line number of a standard editionthe English title of the work, and the name of the translator.
Ancient commentators regarded logic as a widely-applicable instrument or method for careful thinking. These books touch on many issues: But we cannot confine our present investigations to the Organon. Aristotle comments on the principle of non-contradiction in the Metaphysics, on less rigorous forms of argument in the Rhetoric, on the intellectual virtues in the Nicomachean Ethics, on the difference between truth and falsity in On the Soul, and so on.
We cannot overlook such important passages if we wish to gain an adequate understanding of Aristotelian logic. Categories The world, as Aristotle describes it in his Categories, is composed of substances—separate, individual things—to which various characterizations or properties can be ascribed.
Each substance is a unified whole composed of interlocking parts. There are two kinds of substances. A primary substance is in the simplest instance an independent or detachable object, composed of matter, characterized by form.
Individual living organisms—a man, a rainbow trout, an oak tree—provide the most unambiguous examples of primary substances.
Secondary substances are the larger groups, the species or genera, to which these individual organisms belong.
So man, horse, mammals, animals and so on would be examples of secondary substances. Aristotle elaborates a logic that is designed to describe what exists in the world.
We may well wonder then, how many different ways can we describe something? In his Categories 4. In the Topics I. We can, along with Aristotle, give an example of each kind of description: Commentators claim that these ten categories represent either different descriptions of being or different kinds of being.
To be a substance is to be in a certain way; to possess quantity is to be in a certain way; to possess a quality is to be in a certain way, and so on. There is nothing magical about the number ten.evaluating ethical arguments. Whenever you consider an ethical argument, you are Whenever you consider an ethical argument, you are likely to have your own intuitions about the moral issue at stake.
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Topics include questionnaire design and survey sampling, forecasting techniques, computational tools and demonstrations. Ethical Reasoning Method The rational dialogue avoids relativity and seeks for the Truth.
Seeks for reasons, implications, values and principles of conduct or action. 3. Ethical argument It is the process by which you try to prove the validity of a moral judgment by arguments and justification.
4. Moral Judgment (ethical proposal). David W. Gill (Ph.D., USC) is an ethics writer, educator and consultant. He served as professor of Christian ethics at New College Berkeley () and professor of applied ethics at North Park University ().
1 Ethical reasoning The word “ ethics” refers to matters of right and timberdesignmag.comr or not to cheat is an ethical issue. Whether or not to dry your dishes with a dishtowel as opposed to letting them air-dry is not an ethical issue. Dental Ethics is an ever-growing collection of resources and materials related to dental ethics, a type of ethics resource clearinghouse.
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