World War 2 was one of the many wars that occurred during the 20th century. During this brutal war many countries, people, and history were changed.
Douhet's Concept The concept of "area bombing" was loosely based on the original theories of Giulio Douhet. According to Douhet, target cities would be subjected to successive waves of bombers carrying different kinds of bombs.
The first wave was to carry high explosives for destroying structures, infrastructure, roads and rail lines. This would be followed by a wave of bombers dropping incendiary bombs.
Incendiaries were intended to burn out remaining usable structures and to destroy any semblance of shelter for the civilian population. Finally, Douhet called for a third wave of bombers to drop gas on cities in order to kill as many people as possible.
The combined effect of such bombing, Douhet reasoned, would so terrorize the enemy that either a their morale would be broken and they would surrender or b the civilian population would rise up and demand their government cease hostilities.
Douhet never denied that his bombing doctrine would result in a tremendous loss of life. War meant killing, after all. The Allied Practice In practice, the Allies carried pursued two types of bombing campaigns against Germany.
These were precision bombing and area bombing. Precision or Pinpoint Bombing: Never as precise as claimed, the primary objective was to destroy a specific military or industrial target using aerial bombardment.
Civilians were often killed in these kinds of operations. However, their deaths were considered an unfortunate result of the inaccuracy of precision bombing, the intent was not to target and kill civilians wholesale.
By and large, the British pursued this kind of bombing in and It was abandoned by the RAF in favor of city-killing, area bombing in February The US followed suit in Decemberafter the disastrous second Schweinfurt raid, but continued to pursue both area and precision bombing until the end of the war in Europe.
Area Bombing also called Strategic Bombing: In contrast to precision bombing, area bombing targeted entire cities, consisting of many square miles, and not specific military or industrial targets.
During area bombing runs wave after wave of bombers, including as many as 1, airplanes, would sweep over a wide expanse and drop hundreds, perhaps thousands, of tons of bombs on the target city.
The concept of area bombing held that cities, as vital centers of economic production, were in themselves legitimate targets. Following this reasoning, it ran that if an entire urban area was destroyed it would dislocate the industrial labor force, thereby making it more difficult for the enemy to produce the war materiel necessary to keep up the fight.
Similarly, the logic of area bombing also ran that the enemy's industrial workforce was in itself a legitimate target. Kill enough of the enemy's laborers and industry would grind to a halt. In connection with this there was the question of shattering the morale of the belligerent population.
Killing as many civilians as possible and rendering as many homeless as possible was thought to have a dramatically negative effect on the morale of the civilian population. Once morale had been undermined it was assumed hoped that the enemy would capitulate see Douhet's Concept above.
Area bombing could consist of dropping purely high-explosive bomb loads. More often, however, it entailed using a bombing method called " firebombing " in which high-explosives and incendiary bombs were dropped during the same air raid.
Firebombing was employed simply to achieve the maximum amount of destruction possible. The objective was to send as many bombers as possible over the target in as rapid a succession as possible in order to create a self-fueling firestorm.
First dropped would be the high-explosives, in order to blow apart buildings, destroy water mains, and wreck roads. Incendiary bombs filled with phosphorus later napalm would then be dropped in order to cause huge fires. A third wave of bombers would drop fragmentation or time-delay bombs in order to kill firefighters arriving on the scene and thus keep the fires burning.
This firestorm would grow so hot that it would create its own wind tunnel effect and burn absolutely everything, including steel.
Firestorms caused by bombing could burn for days, until all of its fuel had been exhausted. The British perfected firebombing and employed it against many German cities, particularly older ones which had crowded streets and mostly wooden structures.
The destruction of Hamburg and Dresdenare the best known examples of cities destroyed by bombing created firestorms, while in Japan Tokyo and other cities were incinerated by firestorms caused by the USAAF.
The following seems a simple method of estimating what we could do by bombing Germany. Careful analysis of the effects of raids on Birmingham, Hull and elsewhere have shown that, on the average, one ton of bombs dropped on a built-up area demolishes dwellings and turns people out of house and home.
We know from our experience that we can count on nearly 14 operational sorties per bomber produced. The average lift of the bombers we are going to produce over the next fifteen months will be about three tons.Just War Theory. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought.
The justification can be either theoretical or historical.
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