Early relations[ edit ] Ukraine has long been seen as an important  but difficult political partner of the European Union. According to observers,[ who?
This is an ongoing story with new details and developments emerging on an almost daily basis. The information below is will be updated as soon as possible, but some details may be out of date due to the fast-moving nature of the topics being discussed.
The Conservative Party manifesto promised a referendum on EU membership. With the Conservatives winning a majority in the House of Commons in that election it was decided that the referendum would take place on the 23rd June It had been widely expected that the vote would go in favour of remaining a member of the EU, but in the end the UK voted to leave the EU.
This sparked a period of political turmoil which saw David Cameron resign as Prime Minister and another general election follow less than two years later. Britain leaving the EU — a process which soon became known Brexit a portmanteau of the words British and Exit — will lead to major changes in trade, immigration, jobs, laws and regulations, justice, and legislation across a huge number of sectors of British society which are intertwined with the EU.
This is an agreement whereby EU nations do not control their own territorial waters or set their own quotas to catch fish. Instead, fish are classed as a common resource and the rules governing fishing quotas, catch levels, subsidies, discards and a whole range of other measures is set centrally by the European Commission the branch of the European Union which proposes legislation and carries out the day-to-day business of the EU.
Before joining the EEC European Economic Community in which became the European Union in the early s Britain — like most other countries in the world — controlled its own fishing waters. This did not happen, despite ministers claiming that it wouldleaving many fishermen feeling hugely resentful that they then had to share the fish stocks in their territorial waters with the fishing industries of many other EU countries, for no apparent Eu enlargement opportunity in the late 1990s to themselves.
A separate piece of legislation known as the London Fisheries Convention so called as it was signed in London was ratified in Many of the regulations of the London Fisheries Convention were superseded by the Common Fisheries Policy, although the convention is still in effect. This system has been in place ever since.
The statistics bear this out. The way quotas are set centrally by the EU is also seen as hugely unfair on British fishermen, as they can often end up getting only a tiny proportion of the catch within their own waters, as the following statistics show: In the Celtic Sea, France gets nearly three times the British allocation of Dover sole, roughly four times more cod and five times more haddock.
European fishermen take times more herring, 45 times more whiting, 16 times more mackerel and 14 times more haddock and cod out of UK waters than British fishermen do. There are many other criticism of the Common Fisheries Policy including high levels of discarded fish being allowed, dubious deals to allow European factory trawlers to fish in the waters of impoverished African nations and huge subsidies paid out to allow highly environmentally damaging deep-sea trawling to continue even though it only employs a tiny number of people, runs at a huge financial loss and is only propped up by EU subsidies.
These are all covered in our main article on the Common Fisheries Policy which can be viewed by clicking here. Commercial fishing is, in fact, a very, very small part of the UK economy. Out of a workforce of Marine Socio-Economics Project, New Economics Foundation, May ], although like all industries there are further people employed in the wider supply and support sectors.
Indeed, the World of Business programme broadcast on the BBC World Service in August stated that the British commercial fishing industry raises less money for the UK economy than the manufacturing and selling of lawnmowers.
Despite this, commercial fishing is often seen as massively important to coastal communities around the UK, even if economically it has been overtaken by other industries. For these reasons, fishing has a significance and media profile which is much higher than its economic importance would suggest.
A number of fishing pressure groups emerged to back Brexit, such as Fishing for Leave. This was met by a rival flotilla of remain supporters led by multi-millionaire singer Bob Geldof. The remain supporters played the song The In Crowd by Dobie Gray, while some of the boats from the pro-leave flotilla used their hoses to soak the remain boats.
Eventually the police arrived to keep the two groups apart, although there were no reports of serious trouble. The EU Referendum Result The map on the left shows leave voting constituencies blue and remain voting yellowwith further information on the vote to the right.
The referendum result was confirmed in the early hours of 17th June with While many areas such as London, Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to remain, Wales and much of England outside of London and major metropolitan areas voted to leave.
Areas which traditionally had a large fishing industry, such as Humberside had some of the highest proportion of leave votes in the country. The result of the referendum led to the Prime Minister David Cameron, who had strongly backed remain, announcing his resignation within hours of the result being confirmed and a period of political turmoil began.
A pro-EU march taking place in London in A hard Brexit can be understood as Britain leaving the European Union and with it the European Single Market, Customs Union and no longer having to accept the freedom of movement of people.
A soft Brexit would mean Britain leaving the EU but staying a member of these institutions, possibly through being a member of the European Economic Area EEA — an agreement which allows non-EU countries to access the Single Market in return for accepting the majority of EU rules and regulations.
As with many of the implications of Brexit it remains to be seen how a hard or soft Brexit would impact fisheries, but it is worth noting that being a member of the EEA a development which many people would consider to be a very soft Brexit does not mean that a country has to give up control of its fisheries.
However, under the rules of their membership and because they are not full members of the European Union they still control their own territorial waters and the fishing which takes place there.
This is not to say that EU vessels cannot access the waters of these countries but it is done under a licensing system which Norway and Iceland unltimately having final say about what happens in their own territorial waters.
Indeed, Iceland and Norway are the only two European nations which have plentiful fish stocks, and both countries have cited losing control of their fisheries as a key reason for not pursuing full membership of the European Union.Part of a series of articles on the United Kingdom in the European Union Accession EC enlargement Referendum Act EC membership referendum EC Act.
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Britain, as a member of the European Union, is signed up to the Common Fisheries Policy. This is an agreement whereby EU nations do not control their own territorial waters or .