They gain information literacy skills that help them become educated consumers of this digital medium. Objectives Students will be able to identify blogs of different types, purposes and levels of credibility. Students will be able to identify how blog writing differs from other forms and styles of writing.
References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing. The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author must be cited.
The writer has no discretion in this matter: Failure to cite quotations is known as plagiarism, a serious academic offense that is equivalent to fraudulent representation of someone else's property as the writer's. It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i.
It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation. All substantial information taken from another source should be cited. There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons.
If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e. The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above.
If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts.
This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so. Some types of statements beg for a citation.
For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion.
These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts. There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced? It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries?
In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials. Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet!
For these reasons, standards are not archival documents. However, if one needs to cite to conventional good engineering practice or to cite to a performance specification, then one can cite engineering standards.
In general, one should avoid citing proprietary literature manufacturer's application notes, specification sheets for products, etc.
These materials are of an ephemeral nature and definitely not archival: A trade magazine is a periodical that is characterized by an abundance of 1 advertisements and 2 articles written by a employee of manufacturer X about a specific product of manufacturer X.
Such material is commonly not objective, and is often blatantly self-serving. Trade magazines are often distributed free to readers who are engaged in purchasing and specifying the products that are described in the magazine.
Trade magazines are distinguished from a journal that is published by a professional society. Journals usually have two or three recognized experts review each prospective article for accuracy a process called "peer review" before the article is published, while trade magazines publish anything that the editor wishes.
Journals are supported by fees paid by the readers, while trade magazines are supported by advertising revenue.1. Choose a Resume Format that Fits.
You can't just start writing a resume by putting your info into the resume template all willy-nilly. Instead, first select from the standard resume formats. Rules for Writing Formal Letters In English there are a number of conventions that should be used when writing a formal or business letter.
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Furthermore, you try to write as simply and as clearly as possible, and not to make the letter longer than necessary. Glossary of Unicode Terms. This glossary is updated periodically to stay synchronized with changes to various standards maintained by the Unicode Consortium.
Colophon. This text was instrumental in the fast spreading of chess games on the Internet. For the first time, developers of chess software had a reliable, precise and accessible definition of an open format their programs could read and write.
Table — Chunk fields; Length: A four-byte unsigned integer giving the number of bytes in the chunk's data field. The length counts only the data field, not itself, the chunk type, or the CRC. Zero is a . How to Format a Formal Letter.
There is a standard format to follow when writing a formal letter. This standard format can actually help to present your letter in an attractive and impressive manner and will ensure that your thoughts are well-arranged and will be taken seriously by the recipient of your formal letter.
You may also see formal notices. 1.