Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Use the first person I, we rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from colleagues.
In this Background section, make the topic interesting by explaining it in plain language and by relating it to actual or potential practical applications. Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and justify the scope of the review: LITERATURE In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscriptand how you found them for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus.
Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.
We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme.
I have identified four themes for this section: These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the review and easier for others to read it.
Quality of Published Work Look critically at any published work. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy.
Some research designs are better than others see Hopkins, a. The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to detect the smallest worthwhile effects.
The weakest findings are those from case studies. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of interpreting cause and effect in the relationship between variables.
How subjects were sampled is an important issue. Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to elites. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement.
There are big differences in the way data can be collected. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments questionnaires.
At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability.
In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in a population.
The conclusions may also be biased by the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer.
Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of course, on the design.
You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and indicate the extent to which you have based your review on them.
Make sure you look at the key original papers cited in any earlier reviews, to judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.
Reviews, like original research, vary in quality.HTML - Text Links (Anchors) The World Wide Web got its spidery name from the plentiful connections (links) that link websites together with the click of a button.
What most people don't know is that HTML links are actually HTML anchors constructed using anchor tags (). HTML - Download Links. Placing files available for download is done.
In this technological age, everything is digital, including the method used to send resume files. If you have a personal website, place a link on your site that allows potential clients and employers to download .
User can Right click or option-click the link and choose "Save As " to download this file. Using this download link, you can provide any type of files like pdf, mp3, text, zip etc.
download . The public can report violations of U.S. federal law or suspected terrorism or criminal activity to the FBI online or via telephone or mail. All the utilities and tools in this Web site are compressed in a ZIP file.
If you don't have a software that can open a ZIP file, you can download the CAM UnZip utility. CAM UnZip is a small freeware utility that allows you to easily extract files from any ZIP file.
As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) "how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?".
Back in I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one.